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The lubrication method of internal combustion engine (diesel engine)
- Sep 27, 2017 -

The internal combustion engine lubrication can be divided into two kinds of non-circulating lubrication and circulation lubrication.

1. No cycle lubrication

No circulation of oil only after a lubrication that is consumed, no recycling. This lubrication can be lubricated by pressure, or by splash lubrication. The internal combustion engine belonging to this lubrication method has a small two-stroke gasoline engine, using oil mist lubrication. The oil is blended in proportion to the gasoline, from the carburetor into the cylinder and the crankcase, the oil mist is vaporized after contact with the hot surface, the oil is attached to the metal surface, lubricated and then burned into the combustion chamber at high temperatures. The other is a large two-stroke low-speed diesel engine lubrication, the use of drip lubrication, oil is installed in a special oiler, the time into the cylinder into the oil, lubricating cylinder piston friction surface, but also burned in the combustion chamber The No cycle lubrication can not meet the stringent requirements of modern internal combustion engine for lubrication work, therefore, the application is not extensive.

2. Circulating lubricating

oil can be recycled several times, to a certain time, the oil can no longer be used, the replacement of new oil. For the different ways of circulating lubrication, according to the different ways in which the engine oil is delivered to the friction surface of the moving parts, the engine circulation lubrication can be divided into two kinds of lubrication modes: splash type, pressure type and compound type.

(1) splash lubrication. Spray type (also known as splashing) lubrication, for the smaller load of friction parts, such as the cylinder wall, the valve with the cam, tappet and other parts, by the crankshaft main bearing and connecting rod bearing gap in the oil Splashing on the friction surface to lubricate; or use the lower end of the connecting rod to hit the oil in the oil pan, the oil splash, the formation of oil droplets or oil mist, fall on the surface of the friction parts lubrication, lubricating oil still flow back to the oil Bottom shell. This lubrication method is simple, but the lubrication is not reliable, oil consumption is large, and easy to oxidation and pollution.

(2) pressure lubrication. For the larger load, the relative movement speed of the friction surface, such as the main bearing, connecting rod bearings, camshaft bearings and other mechanical parts is the use of oil pump pressure, the oil from the oil sump through the oil and tubing to the The friction surface of the moving parts is lubricated. This lubrication, lubrication is reliable, the effect is good, and has a good cleaning and cooling effect.

(3) compound lubrication. Composite lubrication at the same time using pressure lubrication and sprinkler lubrication of the oil supply, respectively, the friction of the engine surface lubrication. Modern multi-cylinder engine commonly used this lubrication, not only reliable, but also make the entire lubrication system structure is simplified. In addition, in the cycle of lubrication, in accordance with the cycle of oil collection methods, the internal combustion engine lubrication system is also divided into two kinds of dry and wet cycle. Dry-type circulatory systems are generally used as diesel engines for mobile mechanical power. The so-called dry cycle, that is, oil alone stored in the diesel engine outside the tank. The oil pan on the engine is only collected from the lubrication of the oil cycle, and then through the oil pump to the tank storage. The oil in the tank is pumped through the oil pressure to the friction surfaces. This dry cycle system is suitable for mobile large and medium low speed diesel engines.

Drying system lubrication characteristics are:

(1) diesel engine for mobile machinery, you can prevent the process of oil fluctuations, affecting the normal lubrication of diesel engines.

(2) the oil pan volume can be greatly reduced, so that the height of the diesel engine structure significantly reduced.

(3) to reduce the crankcase high temperature gas on the impact of internal combustion engine oil to prevent oil oxidation deterioration, extend the use of time. When the engine oil is stored directly in the oil pan, it is called a wet circulation system. This form will be the entire lubrication system all concentrated in the diesel engine. This cycle system is characterized by the need for suction pump, as long as a pressure pump can be achieved internal combustion engine oil cycle, so that diesel engine accessories and the overall layout greatly simplified. Medium and small engines use this wet circulation system.